Thursday 14 November 2019

World Diabetes Day 2019

World Diabetes Day takes place on the 14th November every year. The purpose of this one day is to raise awareness of a condition that millions of people all around the world live with every day. Essentially, diabetes is about the body’s inability (or lack of it) to produce the required amount of a hormone called insulin to control glucose levels in the blood. There are broadly two types of diabetes: Type 1 (Diabetes Insupidus) requires daily administration of artificial insulin by means of injection or insulin pump. Type 2 (Diabetes Mellitus) is more generally managed by a combination of dietary control and medication in the form of tablets.
    Diabetes incidence have dramatically increased among adults and children in the past decades. It results from improper regulation of blood glucose in either hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) or hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Diabetes is diagnosed when one's fasting blood glucose is 126 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood or greater. It ranks sixth among the leading causes of death, and was responsible for four million deaths in 2017. If untreated or unmanaged, it can lead to life-changing complications. These include amputation and several other major diseases, like stroke, heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure.
Causes of Diabetes

1. Changes in lifestyle

i. Physical inactivity, overnutrition and obesity predispose one to developing diabetes mellitus later in life. Men whose waist circumference is more than 40 inches (102 cm) and more than 35 inches (89cm) in women are at higher risk of diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and dyslipidaemia. 

ii. Drugs and hormones: several drugs especially the oral contraceptives cause glucose intolerance and in susceptible individuals may induce diabetes

2. Acquired and environmental factors

i. Infection: it may precipitate insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

Symptoms of Diabetes mellitus

A lack of knowledge about diabetes means that spotting the warning sign is an issue impacting a cross-section of society. The warning signs can be so mild that you don't notice them. Some people don't find out they have it until they get problems from long-term damage caused by the disease.

1. Excretion of large amounts of glucose in urine: losing so much solute in the urine causes osmotic diuresis and the volume of urine increases(polyuria). The patient constantly feels thirst.

2. Slow-healing sores or cuts. Over time, high blood sugar can affect your blood flow and cause nerve damage that makes it hard for your body to heal wounds.

3. Pain or numbness in your feet or legs. This is another result of nerve damage (poly-dipsia) and drinks large quantities of water.

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